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Umsebenzi → ukuthoba igrisi → ukuhlamba amanzi → ukuchola → ukuhlamba amanzi → ukuntywiliselwa ekuncediseni ukucwenga isinyibiliki → ukomisa kunye nokufudumeza kwangaphambili → ukuntywila okushushu → ukupholisa → ukupholisa → ukuhlamba → ukoma → ukuhlola
(1) Ukunciphisa amafutha
I-Chemical degreasing okanye i-metal-based metal degreasing i-agent yokucoca i-agent ingasetyenziselwa ukukhupha de i-workpiece imanziswe ngokupheleleyo ngamanzi.
(2) Ukukha
Inokuthi ivuthwe nge-H2SO4 15%, i-thiourea 0.1%, 40~60℃ okanye i-HCl 20%, i-hexamethylenetetramine 1~3g/L, 20~40℃. Ukongezwa kwe-corrosion inhibitor kunokuthintela i-matrix kwi-corrosion over-corrosion kunye nokunciphisa i-hydrogen absorption ye-matrix yentsimbi. Ukunciphisa kakubi kunye nokunyangwa kwe-pickling kuya kubangela ukunamathela okungahambi kakuhle kwengubo, akukho zinc zokugquma okanye ukuxutywa kwe-zinc layer.
(3) Ukuntywiliselwa emanzini
Ikwaziwa njenge-arhente yokudibanisa, inokugcina isiqwenga somsebenzi sisebenza phambi kokuntywiliselwa kweplating ukukhulisa ukudibanisa phakathi komgangatho wokutya kunye nesubstrate. NH4Cl 15%~25%, ZnCl2 2.5%~3.5%, 55~65℃, 5~10min. Ukuze kuncitshiswe i-NH4Cl i-volatilization, i-glycerin inokongezwa ngokufanelekileyo.
(4) Ukomisa kunye nokufudumeza kwangaphambili
Ukuze kuthintelwe i-workpiece ukuba ingaguquki ngenxa yokunyuka okubukhali kobushushu ngexesha lokuntywiliselwa, kunye nokususa ukufuma okushiyekileyo, ukukhusela ukuqhuma kwe-zinc, okukhokelela ekuqhumeni kolwelo lwezinki, ukufudumeza ngokuqhelekileyo yi-120-180 ° C.
(5) Ukufakwa kwegalvanizing eshushu
Kuyimfuneko ukulawula ukushisa kwesisombululo se-zinc, ixesha lokuntywila kunye nesantya apho i-workpiece isuswe kwisisombululo se-zinc. Iqondo lobushushu liphantsi kakhulu, ulwelo lwe-zinc lubi kakhulu, i-coating ingqindilili kwaye ayilingani, kulula ukuyikhupha, kunye nomgangatho wokubonakala umbi; iqondo lobushushu liphezulu, ulwelo lwe-zinc lulungile, ulwelo lwezinc kulula ukwahlula kwi-workpiece, kwaye isenzeko sokuncipha kunye nemibimbi siyancitshiswa. Ukugquma okuqinileyo, okuncinci, ukubonakala kakuhle, ukusebenza kakuhle kwemveliso; nangona kunjalo, ukuba ubushushu buphezulu kakhulu, i-workpiece kunye nembiza ye-zinc iya konakala kakhulu, kwaye kuya kuveliswa inkunkuma eninzi ye-zinc, eya kuchaphazela umgangatho we-zinc dipping layer kwaye idle izixa ezikhulu ze-zinc. Kwakwiqondo lobushushu elifanayo, ixesha lokuntywiliselwa lide kwaye umaleko wokucwenga ungqindilili. Xa ubukhulu obufanayo bufuneka kumaqondo obushushu ahlukeneyo, kuthatha ixesha elide ukucwiliswa kobushushu obuphezulu. Ukuze kuthintelwe ukuguqulwa kobushushu obuphezulu be-workpiece kunye nokunciphisa inkunkuma ye-zinc ebangelwa yilahleko yentsimbi, umenzi jikelele wamkela i-450~470℃, 0.5~1.5min. Ezinye iifektri zisebenzisa amaqondo obushushu aphezulu kwizixhobo zokusebenza ezinkulu kunye nentsimbi, kodwa zithintele uluhlu lobushushu lokulahleka kwentsimbi. Ukuze kuphuculwe i-fluidity yesisombululo se-dip plating eshushu kumaqondo obushushu asezantsi, ukuthintela ukwambathisa ukuba ungatyebi kakhulu, kunye nokuphucula inkangeleko yokwambathisa, i-0.01% ukuya kwi-0.02% ye-aluminium ecocekileyo ihlala yongezwa. I-Aluminiyam kufuneka yongezwe ngamanani amancinci amaxesha amaninzi.
(6) ukugqiba
Ukugqiba i-workpiece emva kokufakwa ngokuyinhloko ukususa i-zinc yomhlaba kunye namaqhuqhuva e-zinc, mhlawumbi ngokugungqa okanye iindlela zezandla.
(7) Ukunyamezela
Injongo kukuphucula ukuchasana ne-corrosion ye-atmospheric ebusweni bomsebenzi, ukunciphisa okanye ukwandisa ukubonakala kwe-rust emhlophe, kunye nokugcina ukubonakala kakuhle kwengubo. Zonke zigqithiswa ngechromate, ezifana neNa2Cr2O7 80~100g/L, iasidi yesulfuric 3~4ml/L.
(8) Ukupholisa
Ngokuqhelekileyo ipholile ngamanzi, kodwa ubushushu akufunekanga bube phantsi kakhulu ukukhusela i-workpiece, ngakumbi ukuphosa, ekuqhekekeni kwi-matrix ngenxa yokuqhaqhazela kunye nokuncipha.
(9) Ukuhlolwa
Ukubonakala kwengubo eqaqambileyo, eneenkcukacha, ngaphandle kokugubha okanye imibimbi. Ukuhlola ukutyeba kunokusebenzisa igeyiji yokutyeba, indlela ilula. Ubunzima bokugquma bunokufunyanwa kwakhona ngokuguqula inani le-zinc adhesion. Amandla okudibanisa anokugotywa ngumshini wokugoba, kwaye isampuli kufuneka igobe kwi-90-180 °, kwaye akufanele kubekho ukuqhekeka okanye ukuxutywa kwengubo. Isenokuvavanywa nangokubetha ngehamile enzima.
2. Inkqubo yokwenza i-galvanized layer ye-Hot-dip Inkqubo yokwakhiwa kwe-galvanized layer yinkqubo yokwenza i-alloy ye-iron-zinc phakathi kwe-matrix yentsimbi kunye ne-zinc ecocekileyo engaphandle. I-iron-zinc alloy layer yenziwe phezu kwendawo yokusebenza ngexesha lokutshisa i-galvanizing. I-iron kunye ne-zinc ecocekileyo yomaleko idityaniswe kakuhle, kwaye inkqubo inokuchazwa nje ngokuba: xa i-workpiece yentsimbi intywiliselwa kwi-zinc etyhidiweyo, isisombululo esiluqilima se-zinc kunye ne-alpha yentsimbi (isiseko somzimba) senziwe kuqala kwi-interface. Le yikristale eyenziwe ngokunyibilikisa iiathom ze-zinc kwisiseko sesinyithi kwisimo esiqinileyo. Iiathom ezimbini zesinyithi zixutywe, kwaye umtsalane phakathi kweeathom umncinci. Ke ngoko, xa i-zinc ifikelela kwi-saturation kwisisombululo esiqinileyo, iiathom ezimbini ze-zinc kunye ne-iron ziyasasazeka enye kwenye, kwaye iiathom ze-zinc ezisasazekileyo (okanye ezingene ngaphakathi) kwi-matrix yentsimbi zifudukela kwileti ye-matrix, kwaye ngokuthe ngcembe zenze ialloyi kunye. i-iron, kwaye isasazeke I-iron kunye ne-zinc kwi-zinc etyhidiweyo zenza i-intermetallic compound FeZn13, etshona emazantsi e-hot-dip galvanizing pot, ebizwa ngokuba yi-zinc nkunkuma. Xa i-workpiece isusiwe kwisisombululo sokucwiliswa kwe-zinc, i-zinc ecocekileyo yenziwe phezu komhlaba, eyi-crystal ene-hexagonal. Umxholo wayo wentsimbi awukho ngaphezu kwe-0.003%.
Okwesithathu, ukusebenza kokhuselo lwe-hot-dip galvanized layer Ubukhulu be-electro-galvanized layer ngokuqhelekileyo yi-5-15μm, kwaye i-hot-dip galvanized layer ingaphezulu kwe-65μm, nangona iphakamileyo njenge-100μm. I-Hot-dip galvanizing inokhuselo oluhle, i-coating eshinyeneyo kwaye akukho zibandakanya eziphilayo. Njengoko sonke siyazi, i-anti-atmospheric corrosion mechanism ye-zinc ibandakanya ukukhuselwa komatshini kunye nokukhuselwa kwe-electrochemical. Ngaphantsi kweemeko ze-corrosion ye-atmospheric, kukho iifilimu ezikhuselayo ze-ZnO, i-Zn (OH) 2 kunye ne-zinc carbonate eyisiseko kumphezulu we-zinc layer, enokunciphisa ukubola kwe-zinc kwinqanaba elithile. Ifilimu ekhuselayo (eyaziwa ngokuba yi-rust emhlophe) yonakele kwaye ifilimu entsha yenziwa. Xa umaleko we-zinc wonakaliswe kakhulu kwaye i-iron matrix isengozini, i-zinc iya kuvelisa ukhuseleko lwe-electrochemical yematrix. Umgangatho osemgangathweni we-zinc ngu-0.76V, kwaye umgangatho osemgangathweni wentsimbi ngu-0.44V. Xa i-zinc kunye nentsimbi zenza i-microbattery, i-zinc iyachithwa njenge-anode. Ikhuselwe njenge cathode. Ngokucacileyo, i-galvanizing yediphu eshushu inokumelana ne-atmospheric corrosion engcono kwisiseko sentsimbi kune-electro-galvanizing.
Okwesine, ukulawulwa kokuqulunqwa kwe-zinc ash kunye ne-zinc slag ngexesha lokutshisa-dip galvanizing
Uthuthu lwezinc kunye nenkunkuma ye-zinc ayichaphazeli kakhulu kuphela umgangatho womgangatho wokuntywiliselwa kwe-zinc, kodwa ibangela ukuba i-coating ibe rhabaxa kwaye ivelise amaqhuqhuva e-zinc. Ngaphezu koko, ixabiso le-hot-dip galvanizing linyuka kakhulu. Ngokuqhelekileyo, ukusetyenziswa kwe-zinc yi-80-120kg ngetoni enye yomsebenzi. Ukuba i-zinc ash kunye ne-dross zinzulu, ukusetyenziswa kwe-zinc kuya kuba phezulu kwi-140-200kg. Ukulawula i-zinc carbon kukulawula ubushushu kunye nokunciphisa i-scum eveliswa yi-oxidation ye-zinc liquid surface. Abanye abavelisi basekhaya basebenzisa isanti ephikisayo, uthuthu lwamalahle, njl. Olu hlobo lwebhola lulula ukutyhalwa kude yi-workpiece, kwaye alunamathele kwi-workpiece. Imiphumela. Ukwenziwa kwenkunkuma yezinki kulwelo lwezinki, ubukhulu becala yingxubevange ye-zinc-iron enolwelo olubi ngokugqithisileyo olwenzeka xa umxholo we-iron unyibilikiswa kulwelo lwezinki ugqitha ukunyibilika kobu bushushu. Isiqulatho se-zinc kwinkunkuma ye-zinc inokuba phezulu ukuya kuma-95%, nto leyo ishushu-dip galvanizing. Isitshixo kwiindleko eziphezulu ze-zinc. Inokubonwa kwi-curve ye-solubility ye-iron kwi-zinc liquid ukuba isixa se-iron enyibilikayo, oko kukuthi, isixa selahleko yentsimbi, siyahluka kumaqondo obushushu ahlukeneyo kunye namaxesha ahlukeneyo okubamba. Ebudeni be-500 ° C, ilahleko yentsimbi inyuka ngokukhawuleza ngokufudumeza kunye nokubamba ixesha, phantse kubudlelwane bomgca. Ngaphantsi okanye ngaphezulu koluhlu lwe-480~510℃, ilahleko yentsimbi ikhula kancinci ngokuhamba kwexesha. Ke ngoko, abantu babiza i-480~510℃ indawo embi yokupheliswa. Kolu luhlu lwamaqondo obushushu, ulwelo lwezinki luya kugqwalisa i-workpiece kunye nembiza ye-zinc eyona imbi kakhulu. Ilahleko yentsimbi iya kwanda kakhulu xa iqondo lobushushu lingaphezulu kwe-560℃, kwaye i-zinc iya kutshabalalisa i-matrix yentsimbi xa ubushushu bungaphezu kwama-660℃. . Ke ngoko, ukucwenga okwangoku kuqhutywa kwimimandla emibini ye-450-480 ° C kunye ne-520-560 ° C.
5. Ukulawulwa kobuninzi be-zinc dross
Ukunciphisa i-zinc dross, kuyimfuneko ukunciphisa umxholo wesinyithi kwisisombululo se-zinc, esiqala ngokunciphisa izinto zokuchithwa kwesinyithi:
⑴Ukucwenga kunye nokugcinwa kobushushu kufuneka kuthintele indawo ephezulu yokuchithwa kwentsimbi, oko kukuthi, musa ukusebenza kwi-480~510℃.
⑵ Kangangoko kunokwenzeka, imbiza ye-zinc kufuneka idityaniswe ngeepleyiti zentsimbi ezinekhabhoni kunye nomxholo ophantsi wesilicon. Umxholo wekhabhoni ophezulu uya kukhawulezisa ukubola kwepani yensimbi nge-zinc liquid, kunye nomxholo ophezulu we-silicon unokukhuthaza ukubola kwentsimbi nge-zinc liquid. Okwangoku, i-08F ephezulu ye-carbon steel plates isetyenziswa kakhulu. Umxholo wayo wekhabhoni ngu-0.087% (0.05%~0.11%), umxholo we-silicon ngu-≤0.03%, kwaye iqulethe izinto ezifana ne-nickel kunye ne-chromium enokuthintela isinyithi ukuba i-corrod. Ungasebenzisi i-carbon steel eqhelekileyo, ngaphandle koko ukusetyenziswa kwe-zinc kuya kuba kukhulu kwaye ubomi bebhodwe le-zinc buya kuba bufutshane. Kwaye kwacetywa ukuba kusetyenziswe i-silicon carbide ukwenza itanki yokunyibilikisa i-zinc, nangona inokusombulula ilahleko yentsimbi, kodwa inkqubo yokubumba nayo iyingxaki.
⑶Ukususa islag rhoqo. Ubushushu buphakanyiswa kuqala ukuya kumda ophezulu wenkqubo yokushisa ukwahlula i-zinc slag kulwelo lwezinc, kwaye emva koko ithotywe ukuya ngaphantsi kobushushu benkqubo, ukuze i-zinc slag itshone ukuya ezantsi kwetanki kwaye emva koko ithathwe nge. icephe. Iindawo ezicandiweyo eziwela kwi-zinc liquid kufuneka nazo zigcinwe ngexesha.
⑷ Kuyimfuneko ukukhusela isinyithi kwi-agent ye-plating ukuba ingeniswe kwi-tank ye-zinc kunye ne-workpiece. I-iron equkethe i-iron ebomvu-ebomvu iya kwenziwa xa i-agent ye-plating isetyenziselwa ixesha elithile, kwaye kufuneka ihlulwe rhoqo. Kungcono ukugcina ixabiso le-pH ye-agent yokucoca malunga ne-5.
⑸ Ngaphantsi kwe-0.01% ye-aluminium kwisisombululo se-plating iya kukhawulezisa ukubunjwa kwenkunkuma. Isixa esifanelekileyo se-aluminium asiyi kuphucula kuphela i-fluidity yesisombululo se-zinc kunye nokwandisa ukukhanya kwengubo, kodwa kunceda ukunciphisa i-zinc dross kunye ne-zinc dust. Isixa esincinci se-aluminiyam edadayo kumphezulu wolwelo luluncedo ekunciphiseni i-oxidation, kwaye kakhulu kuchaphazela umgangatho wengubo, kubangele iziphene zamabala.
⑹ Ukufudumeza kunye nokufudumeza kufuneka kufane ukunqanda ugqabhuko-dubulo kunye nokufudumeza kwendawo.

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Ixesha lokuposa: Sep-30-2021